人类遗传学与人类学系

      人类学是研究人类及其性状特征的起源和进化的学科,人类遗传学是研究人类性状的遗传、进化和发育机理的学科。人类群体特征和个体性状的可遗传性决定了这两个学科的殊途同归,而两个学科的融合加速了人类对自身性状及其进化历史的认识。复旦大学人类学与人类遗传学可上溯至吴定良院士、谈家桢院士和刘祖洞先生所建立的人类学科和人类遗传学科。
      复旦大学人类学专业历史悠久、发展迅速、门类齐全、学科交叉紧密,曾是复旦大学生物系最具特色的专业之一。上世纪二十年代,复旦大学在中国首开人类学的教学和科研,1952年院系调整后全国生物人类学力量集中于复旦大学,在生物系设立了人类学教研室,人类学专业的教研力量空前壮大,使复旦大学成为唯一培养人类学专业学生并进行人类学研究的高校,在吴定良院士(中国第一批院士,1948年)领导下,为我国培养了大批人类学专业人才,在海内外享有盛誉。1957年,吴定良院士和刘咸教授在原复旦大学生物系设立了“人类学”专业的本科生和硕士生招生点,上世纪90年代前,在国内从事体质人类学研究的专业人员基本上都由复旦大学培养。文革后期复旦大学人类学专业暂停,后在谈家桢先生的努力下于1997年得以恢复。2004年,在复旦大学生命科学学院(原生物系)原有的“人类学”学科的基础上,恢复“人类学”专业的硕士点招生,并获批设立了“人类生物学”专业博士招生点,这也是目前国内唯一的“人类生物学”专业硕士和博士招生点。人类遗传学是遗传学的一个分支,是复旦大学另一个优势学科,由刘祖洞教授建立,长期以来在全国处于领先地位。
      人类学与人类遗传学两大学科的有机结合是复旦大学人类生物学在全国高校学科建设中的一面独特而鲜明的旗帜,研究特色体现在两个“结合”:生命科学与数理科学、医学科学和人文科学等学科相结合;基础研究的发展与应用相结合。1997年,金力教授建立了人类群体及多基因病遗传学实验室,继承前辈的学术血脉,在学科交叉和国际合作这两大宗旨的指引下,复旦大学人类学与人类遗传学学科进入了飞速发展期,在人类复杂疾病、东亚人群的遗传结构和出生缺陷的分子机制等方面做出了国际水平的工作,尤其在把人类遗传学的研究思路和工具应用于人类学研究方面取得了一系列标志性成果,如“东亚人群非洲起源”、“东亚人群的东南亚源流”、“汉藏同源”、“汉人群的南向融合”、“东亚人群的两次扩张”、“欧亚大陆东西方人群的基因混合”、“现代人与早期智人的基因混合”、“硝酸甘油疗效的个体差异”、“东亚人外胚层调控基因突变对多个性状的影响”、 “新发突变导致出生缺陷”、“泰州大型队列研究”、“如皋长寿与衰老研究”、“多个人类复杂疾病和性状的遗传学机理”等。2016年在与国际权威机构的对比中,复旦大学的人类遗传学与人类学研究成果立于世界前沿,综合水平在国际人类学领域位列第二,紧随德国马普人类进化所,成为引领国际人类学研究方向的领军团队,尤其在亚太人类学研究领域,已成为世界级研究中心。
      依托复旦大学的生物科学一级学科和人类生物学及遗传学两个二级学科,2005年12月教育部批准建设现代人类学教育部重点实验室,2008年7月通过教育部验收。在国际基因地理人类迁徙研究计划中,本实验室是该项目全球十个中心实验室之一(东亚-东南亚中心),与国内外相关科研单位建立了广泛的合作关系,对东亚人群的起源、进化、迁徙及各人群间的关系等领域开展了较为深入的研究,重构了人类的史前发展过程,大幅推进了全球分子人类学的发展,也促发了人类生物学学科的快速发展。基因地理计划的参与单位来自全球13个国家的15个分子人类学实验室,分担全球10个区域的人类群体调查研究工作。其中,复旦大学承担了人类多样性极高的东亚与东南亚地区,在第一个五年计划中完成了全世界总完成工作量的60%,成为最出色的区域中心。团队在Nature、Science、Cell、NEJM、PNAS、AJHG等权威期刊发表了系列科研论文,培养的人类生物学专业硕士及博士研究生的学位论文多次获得全国和上海市优秀学位论文,包括四次全国优秀博士学位论文奖。在人类学与人类遗传学领域的研究成果也多次获得国家重大科研成果奖,其中以第一完成人两次获得国家自然科学二等奖,2015年获批自然科学基金委创新群体。
       人类遗传学与人类学系共有人员45 名,以现代人类学教育部重点实验室教师为主体,固定人员32 名(隶属生科院),校内双聘人员13 名(隶属文科及医学各院系);包括:教授/研究员26人、副教授/副研究员12人、青年研究员2人、青年副研究员2人、高级工程师1人、讲师2人。
      人类遗传学与人类学系隶属于复旦大学生命科学学院,致力于将人类学、遗传学、分子生物学等自然科学与人文科学及医学科学相结合,致力于人类学与人类遗传学人才培养,借助对人类基因组的分析,全面解析东亚遗传结构,建立人群谱系结构,重构民族类群的演化历史,揭示人群差异,挖掘遗传资源,为重要体质、生理、病理表型的遗传分析提供精准研究对象,成为亚太人类学与人类遗传学研究领域的世界级中心。

 

Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics

       Anthropology is the study of the origin and evolution of humans and their traits. Human genetics is the study of the genetic, evolutionary and developmental mechanism of human traits. The heritability of human population characteristics and individual traits determines the common destination of these two disciplines, and the combination of these two disciplines accelerates human understanding of their own traits and evolution history. Anthropology and human genetics at Fudan university can be traced back to the human discipline and human genetics established by academician Wu Dingliang, academician Tan Jiazhen and Prof. Liu Zuo-dong.
       Anthropology department of Fudan university has a long history, rapid development, a complete range of disciplines and close interdisciplinary ties. It was once one of the most distinctive majors in the department of biology at Fudan University. In the 1920 s, Fudan University started teaching and scientific researching programs of anthropology. Fudan was the first university in China at that time that held Anthropology classes. In 1952, China adjusted the power concentrated in biological anthropology to Fudan University. The teaching and researching in biology and anthropology, anthropology research unprecedented power, made Fudan University the only train students of anthropology and anthropological research colleges and universities at that time. Under Prof. Wu Dingliang  (member of China's first batch of 1948)’s leadership, many professional anthropologist talents for our country has trained, he enjoyed a high reputation both at home and abroad. In 1957, Prof. Wu Dingliang and professor Liu Xian established the "anthropology" major undergraduate and the master recruitment center in the department of biology of Fudan University. Before the 1990s, the professionals engaged in physical anthropology research in China were almost all trained by Fudan University. The anthropology major at Fudan university was suspended in the late period of the cultural revolution, and then resumed in 1997 with the efforts of Mr. Zhan jiayong. In 2004, on the basis of the original "anthropology" subject of the college of life science (former department of biology) of Fudan University, the recruitment of the master's degree in "anthropology" was resumed, and the "human biology" professional doctor enrollment place was established, which is also the only "human biology" professional master's degree and doctor enrollment place in China. Human genetics, a branch of genetics, is another dominant subject at Fudan university, established by professor Liu Zudong, and has long been a national leader.
       The organic combination of anthropology and human genetics is a unique and distinctive banner of human biology in the discipline construction of Fudan University. Research features in two "combinations": The combination of life science and mathematical science, medical science and humanities science; the development and application of basic research are combined. In 1997, professor Jin li established the laboratory of human population and polygenetic diseases genetics, inheriting the academic blood of predecessors. Under the guidance of the two purposes of interdisciplinary and international cooperation, anthropology and human genetics at Fudan university entered a rapid development period. International efforts have been made in the areas of complex human diseases, the genetic structure of East Asian populations and the molecular mechanism of birth defects. In particular, a series of landmark achievements have been made in applying the research ideas and tools of human genetics to anthropological research. For example, "East Asian populations of African origin", "East Asian population in southeast Asia origin", "Sino-Tibetan homology", "south to the fusion of the Han people", "East Asian population expansion" , "Eurasia population genetic mixing between east and west", "modern and early homo sapiens genetic mixing", "nitroglycerin effect of individual differences", "east Asians ectoderm regulate gene mutations on the influence of multiple traits", "new mutations can lead to birth defects", "Taizhou large cohort study", "study on longevity and aging in rugao", "many complex human diseases and the character of genetics mechanism", etc. In comparison with the international authoritative institutions in 2016, Fudan university's human genetics and anthropology research results in the front, the comprehensive level in the field of international anthropological ranked second, followed by the Max Planck human evolution, become a leading team in leading international anthropological research direction, research field, especially in the Asia Pacific anthropology has become a world-class research center.
       Relying on the first-level discipline of biological science and the second-level discipline of human biology and genetics of Fudan University, the ministry of education approved the construction of a key laboratory of modern anthropology in December 2005, and the laboratory was accepted by the ministry of education in July 2008. In the international gene geography human migration research project, the lab is one of the projects of global ten central laboratories (east-southeast Asian center), with the domestic and foreign relevant scientific research units established a wide cooperation relationship, origin, evolution, migration on east Asian people and the relationship between the population and other fields to conduct a thorough research, reconstructed the prehistoric human development process, greatly promote the development of the global molecular anthropology, also contributed to the rapid development of the human biology studies. The project involves 15 molecular anthropology laboratories in 13 countries around the world and shares research work on human populations in 10 regions of the world. In the first five-year plan, Fudan University has completed 60% of the world's total completed workload and become the most outstanding regional center. The team has published a series of scientific research papers in authoritative journals such as Nature, Science, Cell, NEJM, PNAS, AJHG, etc. The dissertation for the master's degree and doctoral degree in human biology has been awarded the national and Shanghai excellent dissertation many times, including four national excellent doctoral dissertation awards. The research results in the field of anthropology and human genetics have also been awarded the national major scientific research award for many times, among which the second prize of national natural science award was twice awarded as the first accomplished, and the innovation group of natural science foundation was approved in 2015.
       The department of anthropology and human genetics has a total of 45 staff, mainly teachers of key laboratories of the Ministry of Modern Anthropology, 32 permanent staff (affiliated to the School of Life Sciences), and 13 staff (affiliated to the departments of liberal arts and medicine). Including: 26 professors/researchers, 12 associate professors/associate researchers, 2 young researcher, 2 young associate researchers, 1 senior engineer, and 2 lecturers.
       Affiliated with Fudan university department of human genetics and human life science college, to anthropology, genetics, molecular biology and other natural sciences and humanities and medical science, the combination of anthropology and human genetics talents cultivation, through the analysis of the human genome, a comprehensive analytical east Asia genetic structure, establish the crowd spectrum structure, reconstruct the evolutionary history of ethnic groups, reveal the crowd difference, genetic resources, as the importance of physical, physiological and pathological phenotypes provide accurate genetic analysis the research object, to become the world-class center in the field of anthropology and human genetics research.
 

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